Use of the Cognitive Emotional Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ) (2023)

Use of the Cognitive Emotional Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ) (1)It is used to describe a person's ability to manage and respond to emotional experiences,emotional regulationit is a concept that is receiving increasing interest in mental health research and psychotherapy.

Regardless of the source, uncontrolled emotions have the potential to spiral out of control into unfortunate and sometimes disturbing situations and actions.

While most of us employ a variety of strategies to adapt and cope with stressful situations, some of these approaches are more beneficial than others.

The ability to identify, understand, and change the intensity of one's own emotions is crucial in the development of adaptive responses, especially to those emotions that are considered negative.

The following article will simply review some of the methods by which emotion regulation strategies can be measured and evaluated, versions adapted for use with children and adolescents, and guidance on how to score and interpret the results.

Before you read on, we thought you might like itDownload our three Emotional Intelligence exercises for free. These science-based exercises will not only improve your ability to understand and work with your emotions, but will also give you the tools to promote the emotional intelligence of your clients, students, or employees.

This article contains:

  • What is the Emotional Regulation Questionnaire?
  • How is it different from the Cognitive Emotional Regulation Questionnaire?
  • About the Interpersonal Emotion Regulation Questionnaire
  • The Emotional Regulation Scale
  • How does the scoring work?
  • Other Emotional Regulation Assessments and Tests
  • Subversions of these questionnaires
  • How is the reliability?
  • Results analysis
  • How to obtain these questionnaires in PDF
  • A message to take home
  • References

What is the Emotional Regulation Questionnaire?

While emotions can be regulated in a number of ways, research suggests that some forms of emotion regulation are much healthier than others. The Emotional Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ; Gross & John, 2003) is designed to assess and measure two emotion regulation strategies; the constant tendency to regulate emotions through cognitive reappraisal or expressive suppression.

Respondents are encouraged to consider the statements about their emotional lives, particularly about how emotions are controlled or regulated. Cognitive reappraisal is an antecedent-focused adaptive strategy that affects early cognitive stages of emotional activity, whereby the original interpretation of a situation is reassessed (Ioannidis & Siegling, 2015).

In short, cognitive reappraisal fundamentally changes the way one thinks about events that potentially evoke emotions. Research shows that the use of cognitive reappraisal to regulate emotions is associated with healthier patterns of affect, social functioning, and well-being compared to expressive suppression (Cutuli, 2014).

In contrast, expressive suppression is considered a response-focused maladaptive action plan that is implemented after an emotional response has already fully developed (Ioannidis & Siegling, 2015).

How is it different from the Cognitive Emotional Regulation Questionnaire?

Cognitive emotion regulation refers to the conscious and cognitive management of emotionally arousing information (Garnefski, Kraaij, & Spinhoven, 2001) and helps control emotions during or after the experience of an adverse event. For example, when experiencing a stressful situation, one may be inclined to brood and blame or to accept or evaluate the situation positively (Garnefski & Kraaij, 2007).

The Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ; Garnefski et al., 2002) is a 36-item questionnaire developed to capture stable dispositional cognitive emotion regulation strategies when people experience stressful life experiences (Feliu-Soler et al., 2017).

While the ERQ focuses on cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression, the CERQ addresses the self-regulatory, conscious, and cognitive components of emotion regulation by distinguishing between nine different strategies:

  • Self-blame: the causal attribution of negative events to oneself.
  • Blaming others: the causal attribution of unwanted events to others.
  • Rumination: overthinking feelings and thoughts associated with negative events.
  • Catastrophizing: Explicitly emphasizes the consequences of negative events.
  • Put into perspective: Putting a negative event into perspective by considering the impact over time.
  • Positive refocusing: keeping attention on pleasant thoughts after the occurrence of negative events.
  • Positive Reappraisal: Finding the best color by creating positive meaning for negative events.
  • Acceptance: accepting and not changing a negative situation or the feelings caused.
  • Refocus: Think about what steps to take and how to deal with the negative event.

The CERQ allows clinicians and researchers to measure a broader range of cognitive emotion regulation strategies with a single questionnaire.

(Video) Emotional Regulation

About the Interpersonal Emotion Regulation Questionnaire

Until recent years, research in the field has focused almost exclusively on the roles of intrapersonal emotion regulation and how individual responses to stress, challenges, or emotional distress affect their well-being (Marroquín, Tennen, & Stanton, 2017). . In contrast, interpersonal emotion regulation focuses on how emotions are regulated through others without one's own efforts to bring about that regulation (Hofmann, 2014).

As social beings, the expression and regulation of emotions often occurs interpersonally with trusted others; we commonly seek the company of others to reveal emotional experiences (Barthel, Hay, Doan, & Hofmann, 2018). The regulation of interpersonal emotions can be classified in two ways; internal, if people use it to change their own feelings, and external, if people use it to change the feelings of others.

The Interpersonal Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (IERQ; Hofmann, Carpenter, & Curtiss, 2016) is a 20-item self-report questionnaire consisting of the four factors described below:

  1. Strengthens positive influence- reaching out to others to increase feelings of happiness and joy - "I like to be with others when I'm excited to share my joy."
  2. perspective to take- using other people as a reminder that others have a worse time - "When people remind me that others have a worse time, it helps me when I'm sad."
  3. Soothing- I look for comfort and sympathy in others - "I look for other people who offer me compassion when I'm sad."
  4. social modeling– looks at others to see how they might handle a given situation – “It makes me feel better to know how others handled their emotions.”

The Emotional Regulation Scale

The Emotional Regulation Scale is designed to measure the tendency to regulate emotions through cognitive reappraisal and/or expressive suppression. The items on the scale involve two distinct aspects of emotional life, namely emotional experience and emotional expression.

For example, “I keep my feelings to myself” is related to emotional expression, while a statement like “When I want to feel more positive emotions, I change the way I think about the situation” represents an emotional experience.

The cognitive reappraisal facet consists of six statements, with an additional four statements included in the expressive suppression facet.

Cognitive Reassessment Points:

  1. When I want to feel more positive emotions (like joy or fun), I change what I think.
  2. When I want to feel fewer negative emotions (like sadness or anger), I change what I think.
  3. When faced with a stressful situation, I force myself to think about it in a way that helps me stay calm.
  4. When I want to feel more positive emotions, I change the way I think about the situation.
  5. I control my emotions by changing the way I think about the situation I find myself in.
  6. When I want to feel less negative emotions, I change the way I think about the situation.

Suppressor expressive elements:

  1. I keep my feelings to myself.
  2. When I feel positive emotions, I am careful not to express them.
  3. I manage my emotions by not expressing them.
  4. When I feel negative emotions, I make sure not to express them.

How does the scoring work?

Along with having access to scales and questionnaires, it is equally important to know how to interpret the score.

The Emotional Regulation Questionnaire

Respondent responses are rated on a 7-point Likert scale from 1 (strongly disagree) to 7 (strongly agree). The score averages all scores on each cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression subscale.

The higher the score, the greater the use of the emotional regulation strategy in question, on the contrary, the lower scores represent less frequent use.

The Cognitive Emotional Regulation Questionnaire

Scoring the 36-item CERQ questionnaire is again straightforward. The nine cognitive emotion regulation strategies are measured on a 5-point Likert scale from 1 to 5, with scores obtained by calculating the mean scores belonging to a particular subscale.

Higher subscale scores indicate greater use of a specific cognitive strategy.

The Interpersonal Emotion Regulation Questionnaire

All items on the Interpersonal Emotion Regulation Questionnaire are prospective on a 5-point scale from 1 (not at all true for me) to 5 (extremely true for me), yielding subscale scores for enhancing positive affect, perspective taking, calm and socialization. modeling.

How to find the score for:

Improvement of the positive effect - calculate the sum of the points 3, 6, 8, 13, 18
Perspective shot: calculate the sum of points 2, 7, 10, 14, 17
Soothing – calculate the sum of points 4, 9, 12, 16, 19
Social modeling: Calculate the sum of the elements 1, 5, 11, 15, 20.

As with the scores on the other questionnaires, higher scores on the subscales indicate greater use of that strategy.

Other Emotional Regulation Assessments and Tests

In addition to the known scales mentioned above, you may want to consider one of the following for your respective studies.

Difficulties in Emotional Regulation Scale (DERS; Gratz & Roemer, 2004)

The Emotion Regulation Difficulties Scale contains 36 items scored on a 5-point scale from 1 (almost never) to 5 (almost always) and was developed to measure emotion regulation difficulties along six dimensions:

(Video) Emotion Regulation

  1. Non-acceptance of emotional responses.
  2. Difficulty engaging in goal-directed behavior.
  3. Impulse control difficulties
  4. Lack of emotional awareness.
  5. Limited access to effective emotion regulation strategies
  6. Lack of emotional clarity.

On the DERS, higher scores indicate greater difficulty regulating emotions.

Emotional Regulation Skills Questionnaire (ERSQ; Grant, Salsman, & Berking, 2018)

The Emotion Regulation Skills Questionnaire is a 27-item measure of emotion regulation skills. The successful use of skills is assessed through nine subscales; awareness, sensations, clarity, understanding, modification, acceptance, tolerance, readiness to face difficult situations and self-sufficiency.

Emotional regulation of others and oneself (EROS; Niven, Totterdell, Stride, & Holman, 2011)

The EROS scale is an effective way of examining individual differences in the use of a wide range of emotion regulation strategies, providing a better means of identifying individuals susceptible to negative psychological, physiological, and social consequences (Niven et al., 2011).

EROS is made up of two subscales:

  1. Intrinsic: measures the effort to improve and/or worsen one's own feelings.
  2. External: measures efforts to improve or worsen the feelings of others.

Difficulties in the Interpersonal Regulation of Emotions (DIRE: Dixon-Gordon, Haliczer, Conkey, & Whalen, 2018)

The DIRE was developed as a measure of maladaptive interpersonal emotion regulation and has demonstrated internal consistency, construct, and predictive validity (Dixon-Gordon et al., 2018).

The DIRE is one of the most widely used self-report measures of emotional dysregulation and is used to assess difficulties in emotional regulation with respect to emotional arousal, awareness, understanding, and acceptance of emotions, and the ability to act accordingly. the desired way regardless of emotion. leader (Gratz & Roemer, 2008).

Subversions of these questionnaires

Emotion regulation in children has been shown to positively influence behavior and behavior control in the classroom. Wyman et al. (2010) found that improving emotion regulation in children resulted in fewer disciplinary incidents, better behavior control, fewer aggressive disruptive problems, learning behavior on task and social skills with peers, and more assertive behavior.

In addition, emotion regulation strategies are related to the reporting of symptoms of depression, fear, and worry (Garnefski et al., 2007). Emotion regulation in children is clearly an important skill to assess and develop, as several self-report measures are designed to facilitate this process.

The Emotional Regulation Questionnaire for Children and Adolescents (ERQ–CA; Gullone & Taffe, 2011)

The ERQ-CA is a 10-item questionnaire based on the original version for adults by Gross & John (2003), which is considered suitable for use with children and adolescents from 10 to 18 years of age.

Revisions to the ERQ include simplifying the language of the items, for example, "I control my feelings by not expressing them" was considered too complicated for young children and was therefore reworded to "I control my feelings by not showing them".

In addition, the length of the response scale was reduced from a 7-point to 5-point Likert scale from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree).

Children's Cognitive Regulation of Emotions Questionnaire (CERQ-k; Garnefski, Rieffe, Jellesma, Meerum Terwogt, & Kraaij, 2007)

The CERQ-k is a 36-item adapted version of the original CERQ designed to measure cognitive emotional regulation in children and adolescents. The CERQ-k measures nine cognitive emotional regulation strategies that children can use after experiencing negative life events.

While the original CERQ was considered appropriate for adults and youth 12 years and older, the CERQ-k was constructed for children 9 to 11 years of age to better accommodate the cognitive abilities of children in this age group (Garnefski et al. ., 2007). The response format for the CERQ-k is a five-point Likert scale from 1 (almost never) to 5 (almost always) and can be used to obtain regulatory strategy scores.

How is the reliability?

A very important question for any questionnaire or scale, the following is a brief summary of the reliability of each scale.

Emotional Regulation Questionnaire

Since its development, the ERQ has been widely used in studies of emotion regulation and has shown good psychometric properties. In particular, the measurement has shown good internal consistency and temporal stability, test-retest reliability, and strong convergent and discriminant validity (Ioannidis & Siegling, 2015).

In addition, the criterion validity of the ERQ has been examined, revealing several associations with constructs related to adaptive and non-adaptive functioning. For example, greater cognitive reappraisal is associated with greater positive affect, mood repair, and life satisfaction. Conversely, emotional suppression is positively correlated with negative affect, depression, and inauthenticity (Gross & John, 2003).

Cognitive regulation of emotions questionnaire

The CERQ has been shown to have good factorial validity, discriminant properties, and construct validity. Furthermore, all the subscales have shown good internal consistencies (Garnefski, Baan, & Kraaij, 2005).

Principal component analyzes provided factor efficiency and supported the assignment of items to subscales, while the test-retest reliability of the scales was good, with most alphas greater than 0.80 (Garnefski & Spinhoven, 2001). The minimum recommended Cronbach's alpha coefficient is between 0.65 and 0.80. (Cronbach's alpha is a measure of internal stability.)

The Interpersonal Emotion Regulation Questionnaire

The IERQ demonstrates excellent psychometric properties with Cronbach's alpha coefficients between 0.89 and 0.94 for all subscales (Hofmann, Carpenter, & Curtiss, 2016). As with the other questionnaires described above, the IERQ has been translated into several languages ​​and has shown internal consistency coefficients between 0.81 and 0.89, with strong test-retest correlation coefficients (Gökdağ, Sorias, Kıran, & Ger, 2019).

(Video) Emotion Regulation with James J. Gross, PhD

These results suggest that the translated versions of the IERQ are also reliable and valid scales, with psychometric properties similar to those of the original.

Use of the Cognitive Emotional Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ) (2)

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Results analysis

When all is said, done and added up, how should the results be interpreted?

The Emotional Regulation Questionnaire

The higher the score, the greater the use of emotional regulation strategies, on the contrary, lower scores represent less frequent use of such strategies. Gross and John (2003) found that the average score for each strategy was as follows:

  • Cognitive Retest: Men – 4.6, Women – 4.61
  • Expressive suppression: Men – 3.64, Women – 3.14

Certain assumptions can then be made based on the results. For example, the use of cognitive reappraisal to regulate emotions has been shown to produce more affective, cognitive, and social consequences compared to expressive suppression.

(Video) Emotions and the Brain

Cutuli (2014) found that people who use the cognitive reappraisal strategy are more likely to exhibit interpersonal behaviors that focus appropriately on social interaction. In contrast, those who score higher on expressive suppression modify the behavioral aspect of emotional responses without reducing the subjective and physiological experience of negative emotions.

The Cognitive Emotional Regulation Questionnaire

Based on the results, different conclusions can be drawn regarding cognitive emotional regulation. For example, women with high levels of self-blame are 2.7 times more likely to develop depression than those who do not blame themselves (Killian, Cacciatore, & Lacasse, 2011).

A greater tendency to ruminate has been negatively associated with certain aspects of social interactions, the excessive elaboration of negative information, and a greater recall memory of negative events (Dias da Silva, Rusz, Postma-Nilsenová, 2018).

Garnefski & Kraaij (2006) found that the highest mean scores were found for the cognitive strategies 'Planning' and 'Positive Reappraisal'. 'Catastrophic' and 'Other Failure' were reported to be used less frequently.

As a guide, the average scores for each strategy are as follows:

  • Self blame – 2.96
  • Accept – 3.53
  • Rumination – 3.72
  • Positive Refocus – 3.53
  • Refocus on planning – 3.89
  • Positive Reassessment – ​​4.07
  • Put into perspective – 3.91
  • Catastrophe – 2.43
  • Other debt – 2.69

How to obtain these questionnaires in PDF

A quick search online will produce several PDF versions of the measurements described above; However, if you want to access the questionnaires and learn more about their development, validation, and reliability, it's a good idea to go directly to the source. You can find a list of key references below.

IERQ– The questionnaire for the regulation of interpersonal emotions is found in Annex 1 of:

Hofmann, S.G., Carpenter, J.K. and Curtiss, J. (2016). Interpersonal Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (IERQ): Scale of development and psychometric characteristics.Cognitive therapy and research, 40341-356.

ERQ– Gross, J.J. and John, O.P. (2003). Individual differences in two processes of emotion regulation: implications for affect, relationships, and well-being.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85348-362.

CERQ y CERQ-k– PDF files of the CERQ and CERQ-k can be accessed for research purposes directly from the authors at Leiden University, The Netherlands. Learn more about the development of CERQ at:

Garnefski, N., Rieffe, C., Jellesma, F., Meerum Terwogt, M. & Kraaij, V. (2007). Cognitive strategies of emotional regulation and emotional problems in early adolescence: the development of an instrument.European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 161-9.

DERS– The DERS scoring and measurement guide can be found at:

Bjureberg, J., Ljótsson, B., Tull, M., Hedman, E., & Gratz, K. (2018). DERS-16 Goals and score.

A message to take home

A growing number of researchers and practitioners recognize the importance of understanding how people use a wide range of strategies to regulate their emotions. Even when emotions seem overwhelming, it's important to remember that these emotions still provide important information.

I hope that after reading this article, you have discovered useful information and guidance on how to effectively measure emotion regulation from childhood, adolescence, and adulthood.

We hope you have enjoyed reading this article. don't forget thatDownload our three Emotional Intelligence exercises for free.


  • Barthel, A., Hay, A., Doan, S. N. & Hofmann, S. (2018). Regulation of interpersonal emotions: a review of social and developmental components.Behavior change. 1-14.
  • Cutuli D. (2014). Cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression strategies play a role in emotion regulation: an overview of their modulatory effects and neural correlates.Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience, 8, 175.
  • Dias da Silva, M. R., Rusz, D., & Postma-Nilsenová, M. (2018) Ruminating minds, mind wandering: Effects of rumination and mind wandering on lexical associations, pitch imitation, and visual behavior.PLEASE ONE 13, e0207578.
  • Dixon-Gordon, K.L., Haliczer, L.A., Conkey, LC, and Whalen, D.J. (2018). Interpersonal emotion regulation difficulties: initial development and validation of a self-report measure.Journal of Psychopathology and Behavior Assessment, 40528-549.
  • Feliu-Soler, A., Reche-Camba, E., Borràs, X., Perez-Aranda, A., Andres-Rodriguez, L., Peñarrubia-Maria, M. T., & Luciano, J. V. (2017). Psychometric properties of the emotional cognitive regulation questionnaire (CERQ) in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome.Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 2075.
  • Garnefski, N. & Kraaij, V. (2006). Cognitive regulation of emotions questionnaire: development of a short version of 18 items (CERQ-short).Personality and individual differences, 411045-1053.
  • Garnefski, N., Rieffe, C., Jellesma, F., Meerum Terwogt, M. & Kraaij, V. (2007). Cognitive strategies of emotional regulation and emotional problems in early adolescence: the development of an instrument.European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 16,1-9.
  • Giromini , L. , de Campora , G. , Brusadelli , E. , D'Onofrio , E. , Zennaro , A. , Zavattini , G. C. , & Lang , M. (2016). The validity and reliability of the Interpersonal Competence Questionnaire: Empirical evidence from an Italian study.Journal of Psychopathology and Behavior Assessment, 38113-123.
  • Gökdağ, C., Sorias, O. Kıran, S. & Ger, S. (2019). Adaptation of the Interpersonal Emotion Regulation Questionnaire to the Turkish language and examination of its psychometric properties.Turkish Journal of Psychiatry, 3057-66.
  • Grant, M., Salsman, N.L., & Berking, M. (2018). The evaluation of the successful use of emotion regulation skills: Development and validation of an English version of the Emotion Regulation Skills Questionnaire.Plos in, 13(10), e0205095.
  • Gratz, KL and Roemer, L. (2004). Multidimensional assessment of emotional regulation and dysregulation: development, factor structure, and initial validation of the emotional regulation difficulties scale.Behavioral Assessment Journal of Psychopathology, 26, 41-54.
  • Gross, JJ and John, OP (2003). Individual differences in two processes of emotion regulation: implications for affect, relationships, and well-being.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85348-362.
  • Gross, JJ (2015). Regulation of emotions: Current status and future prospects.Psychological Research, 26, 1-26.
  • Gullone, E. & Taffe, J. (2011). The Emotional Regulation Questionnaire for Children and Adolescents (ERQ-CA): A psychometric assessment. Psychological evaluation. Online pre-launch.
  • Hofmann, SG (2014). Interpersonal emotional regulation model of mood and anxiety disorders.Cognitive Therapy and Research, 38;483-492.
  • Hofmann, S.G., Carpenter, J.K. and Curtiss, J. (2016). Interpersonal Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (IERQ): Scale of development and psychometric characteristics.Cognitive therapy and research, 40341-356.
  • Ioannidis, C.A. & Siegling, A.B. (2015). Criterion and incremental validity of the emotional regulation questionnaire. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 247.
  • Killian, M., Cacciatore, J. & Lacasse, J. (2011). The effects of self-blame on anxiety and depression among women who have experienced a stillbirth. [Conference]. The Society for Social Work and Research 15th Annual Conference: Emerging Horizons for Social Work Research.
  • Marroquin, B., Tennen, H., and Stanton, L.A. (2017). Coping, emotional regulation and well-being: Intrapersonal and interpersonal processes. In M. Robinson and M. Eid (Eds.). The happy mind: cognitive contributions to well-being. Springer International Publications.
  • Niven, K., Totterdell, P., Stride, C. & Holman, D. (2011). Emotional regulation of others and self (EROS): The development and validation of a new measure of individual difference.Current psychology. 30. 53-73.
  • Wyman, P. A., Cross, W., Hendricks Brown, C., Yu, Q., Tu, X. & Eberly, S. (2010). Intervention to strengthen emotional self-regulation in children with emerging mental health problems.Abnormal Child Psychology Journal, 38, 707-720.
(Video) Emotion regulation and immune function during grief (ft. Dr. Rich Lopez!)


Use of the Cognitive Emotional Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ)? ›

The Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ) is widely used to assess the use of cognitive reappraisal

cognitive reappraisal
In particular, cognitive reappraisal is defined as the attempt to reinterpret an emotion-eliciting situation in a way that alters its meaning and changes its emotional impact (Lazarus and Alfert, 1964; Gross and John, 2003). › pmc › articles › PMC4168764
and expressive suppression strategies to regulate negative emotions.

What is the use of ERQ? ›

Balances in these accounts may be used by the exporters for bonafide business purposes, such as business visits abroad, participation in export fairs and seminars, establishment and maintenance of offices abroad, import of raw materials, machinery and spares, repayment of authorised foreign loan etc.

What is the cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire ERQ? ›

The Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ) is a multidimensional questionnaire constructed in order to identify the cognitive emotion regulation strategies (or cognitive coping strategies) someone uses after having experienced negative events or situations.

What does ERQ measure? ›

What is emotional intelligence or EQ? Emotional intelligence (otherwise known as emotional quotient or EQ) is the ability to understand, use, and manage your own emotions in positive ways to relieve stress, communicate effectively, empathize with others, overcome challenges and defuse conflict.

How to use CBT for emotion regulation? ›

Mindfulness is a core component of CBT for emotion regulation. It teaches people to identify their emotions before they get too intense to control. It also helps with cognitive control strategies, teaching people to not fixate on ways of thinking that only increase feeling overwhelmed.

Why do we need to study emotion regulation? ›

A person with good emotional self-regulation can acknowledge a strong emotion and choose a way to respond that has the least negative consequences. Lacking emotional self-regulation skills can lead to negative emotions, socially unacceptable behavior choices, and self-destructive behavior.

What does ERQ stand for in education? ›

Extended Response. Question (ERQ) (Math and Science will have. MCQs and CRQs only)

What scale is used to measure emotional dysregulation? ›

Difficulties in emotion regulation scale (DERS)

The DERS (Gratz and Roemer, 2004) is a 36-item self-report measure of six facets of emotion regulation. Items are rated on a scale of 1 (“almost never [0–10%]”) to 5 (“almost always [91–100%]”). Higher scores indicate more difficulty in emotion regulation.

How can emotion regulation be impacted by cognitive development? ›

Since brain regions associated with cognitive control structures – such as prefrontal cortex – may have a slower maturational trajectory relative to structures associated with emotional responding – like the amygdala and ventral striatum – children and adolescents may have a harder time regulating their emotions.

What is questionnaire of cognitive and affective empathy? ›

The Questionnaire of Cognitive and Affective Empathy (QCAE) is a multiple dimensional measure of cognitive empathy [comprising primary factors for perspective taking (PT), online simulation (OS)], and affective empathy [comprising primary factors for emotion contagion (EC), proximal responsivity (PRO), and peripheral ...

What should be included in an ERQ? ›

Structuring the ERQ

A usual ERQ will consist of 6 well-developed paragraphs with an introduction, 3-5 body paragraphs, and a conclusion. Of course, your structure may vary according to the question, so keep in mind that the one given here is only a general structure.

What are the 5 elements of emotional intelligence? ›

  • Self-awareness. Self-awareness is about recognising and understanding your emotions – what you're feeling and why – as well as appreciating how they affect those around you. ...
  • Self-regulation. ...
  • Motivation. ...
  • Empathy. ...
  • Social skills.
Apr 28, 2021

What is the best therapy for emotion regulation? ›

One approach that can help with emotional dysregulation is dialectical behavioral therapy (DBT). DBT is a type of cognitive behavioral therapy that seeks to identify negative thinking patterns. Individuals work with a therapist to replace these patterns with positive behavioral changes.

Is CBT good for emotional regulation? ›

CBT helps us identify, challenge, and change our unhelpful or maladaptive thinking patterns and behaviours, leading to enhancement of our emotional regulation, self-esteem, and coping skills.

What is an example of emotional regulation? ›

Emotional regulation is a practice of cultivating a sacred buffer of time between feeling the emotion and your reaction to that emotion. For example, pausing to collect your thoughts before you respond. It can also mean waiting until you're in a supportive setting to process tough feelings.

What major brain areas important in emotional regulation? ›

Theoretical accounts have conceptualized emotion regulation as relying upon prefrontal control of limbic regions, specifying the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) as a key brain region for the regulation of emotion.

What are the 4 types of self regulation? ›

There are four basic self-regulation strategies that all students need to be able to use: goal-setting, self-monitoring, effective use of self-instructions or self-talk, and self-reinforcement.

What does the acronym ERQs questions stand for? ›

This article defines and explains what are essay questions, i.e. constructed response questions (CRQs) and extended response questions (ERQs).

What does the CRQ stand for? ›

What Is a Constructed-Response Question? In most states, constructed-response questions (CRQs) are part of educational testing for teachers. These questions require you to produce or construct the answer and are considered a way to more thoroughly assess your subject knowledge.

What does HRE stand for in school? ›

Education for Democratic Citizenship and Human Rights Education (EDC/HRE)

Is emotional dysregulation in the DSM 5? ›

New to the DSM-5, disruptive mood dysregulation disorder is a childhood disorder characterized by a pervasively irritable or angry mood. Symptoms include frequent angry or aggressive outbursts combined with an angry or irritable mood on days when outbursts do not occur.

How do you measure emotional competence? ›

There are three generally accepted ways to measure EI: self-reporting, other-reporting, and ability testing. Self-reporting asks candidates to evaluate their own emotional intelligence, similar to a personality test.

How do you measure emotional sensitivity? ›

The speed of this additional processing could be regarded as the measure reflecting emotional sensitivity. The simplest way to obtain such a measure is the subtraction of the time of simple face recognition from the time of facial expression recognition.

What is an example of cognitive emotion? ›

Consider that there exist feelings states that seem to be primarily cognitive; examples would be certainty, confusion, amazement, and deja vu.

How can I help my child with emotional dysregulation? ›

Do not try to talk to them because they cannot respond to logic or reason. Instead, stay calm, show empathy, help them become self-aware, and guide them through sensory experiences and calming strategies. Be supportive and encouraging. Help children feel cared about, valued, and understood as they learn to regulate.

What is cognitive testing in questionnaire? ›

What is cognitive testing? How is it useful? The primary purpose of cognitive testing is to investigate how well questions perform when asked of survey respondents, that is, if respondents understand the question correctly and if they can provide accurate answers.

What is the cognitive style questionnaire? ›

The Cognitive Style Questionnaire (CSQ) is a frequently employed measure of negative cognitive style, associated with vulnerability to anxiety and depression.

What are the two big questions of cognition and emotion? ›

What are the two major questions of the theory of emotion? - Does physiological arousal come before or after emotional feelings? - How do feeling and cognition interact?

How do you conclude an ERQ? ›

Writing a conclusion for your response to an ERQ
  1. Summarise your essay – imagine your whole essay in miniature size and include the main aspects and arguments in your summary.
  2. Make a concluding statement about which aspects of the argument seem to have more support given what you have said in your essay.

How long should an ERQ be? ›

You should write around 250 words for an SAQ and 800 words for ERQ, but writing everything you know about a topic without answering the question will not result in a high score.

How many studies are there in an ERQ? ›

How many studies should I have in my ERQ? There are no rules but have at least two.

What are the 3 C's of emotional intelligence? ›

The college's work to nurture a culture of Collaboration, Connection & Caring (3Cs) continues with training resources and guides.

What are the 7 signs of emotional intelligence? ›

Emotional Intelligence Part II: 7 Signs of Strong EQ
  • Getting Along Well/Interest In Others. ...
  • Self-Awareness of Strengths and Weaknesses. ...
  • Operating With Integrity. ...
  • Self-Awareness of Feelings. ...
  • Present-Focused. ...
  • Self-Motivated. ...
  • Well-Placed Boundaries.
May 10, 2023

What are the 5 most important dimensions of emotional intelligence or quotient? ›

Goleman (1998) posits that the five dimensions of emotional intelligence are self–awareness, self–regulation, motivation, empathy, and relationship management subsumed in his four major EI scales .

What are the 12 keys of emotional intelligence? ›

Each domain contains twelve competencies: emotional self-awareness, emotional self-control, adaptability, achievement orientation, positive outlook, empathy, organisational awareness, influence, coaching and mentoring, conflict management, teamwork, and inspirational leadership.

What is the 4 second rule in psychology? ›

Bregman estimates that a new idea will spring into your mind every four seconds, but having an awareness of the way the brain tries to distract itself is valuable. When you try the Four-Second Rule, identify the impulses that want to take a destructive path rather than ignore them.

What is the difference between IQ and EQ? ›

IQ tests measure your ability to solve problems, use logic, and grasp or communicate complex ideas. EQ tests measure your ability to recognize emotion in yourself and others, and to use that awareness to guide your decisions.

What are the two main types of emotion regulation? ›

Two broad categories of emotion regulation are reappraisal—changing how one thinks about something that prompted an emotion in order to change one's response—and suppression, which has been linked to more negative outcomes.

What are the two main kinds of emotional regulation strategies? ›

Both reappraisal and rumination are emotion regulation strategies that involve cognitive elaboration. However, whereas cognitive reappraisal reinterprets a negative emotional event, rumination keeps people in a loop of repetitive thought about the event.

What is at the root of emotional dysregulation? ›

Some causes can be early childhood trauma, child neglect, and traumatic brain injury. Individuals can have biological predispositions for emotional reactivity that can be exacerbated by chronic low levels of invalidation in their environments resulting in emotional dysregulation.

Why is CBT criticized? ›

Criticisms of Traditional CBT

Given the dominance of CBT in certain settings, it is not surprising that the approach has garnered its fair share of critics. Opponents have frequently argued that the approach is too mechanistic and fails to address the concerns of the “whole” patient.

How do you fix emotional dysregulation? ›

One of the most effective methods of treating emotional dysregulation is dialectical behavioral therapy, or DBT. DBT is a form of cognitive behavioral therapy in which patients are taught skills and strategies for managing emotions, handling conflict, and building tolerance for uncomfortable feelings.

What are the 5 steps of emotional self-regulation? ›

The five steps are I Am, I Calm, I Feel, I Choose and I Solve. The objectives for children when conducting the five-step self-regulation process are: To recognize they have been triggered and take themselves to the Safe Place. To begin calming themselves enough to identify the feeling they are experiencing.

What is the difference between emotional control and emotional regulation? ›

Emotional control can be thought of as a facet of emotion regulation, but refers primarily to attempts by an individual to manage the generation, experience, or expression of emotion, and/or one's emotional responses (Gross, 1999).

What is another word for emotional regulation? ›

Synonyms: emotional control; emotion-related self-regulation; stress-regulation; mood-regulation; affect-regulation; emotional intelligence Definition: Emotion regulation refers to the conscious or unconscious processes of monitoring, evaluating, modulating, and managing emotional experiences and expression of emotion ...

What is cognitive emotion regulation? ›

Cognitive emotion regulation (CER) is described as the “conscious, mental strategies individuals use to cope with the intake of emotionally arousing information” [30], and it involves four maladaptive and five adaptive strategies.

Who wrote the emotion regulation questionnaire ERQ? ›

Emotion Regulation Questionnaire. This instrument was developed by Gross and John (2003. Individual differences in two emotion regulation processes: Implications for affect, relationships, and well-being.

What is an emotional questionnaire? ›

Preview. PDF (Emotional intelligence questionnaire) 326kB. This self-assessment questionnaire is designed to measure the various competences of emotional intelligence including: self-awareness, motivating oneself, managing emotions, empathy and social skills.

What is an example of cognitive theory of emotion? ›

From this view, cognitive appraisals occur after the felt emotion (after physiological and behavior changes). For example, we might hear a gunshot and experience fear, which is then followed by cognitive appraisals of unexpectedness and ability to cope.

What are the 5 cognitive theories of emotion? ›

These include evolutionary theories, the James-Lange theory, the Cannon-Bard theory, Schacter and Singer's two-factor theory, and cognitive appraisal.

Is the ERQ scale reliable? ›

The Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ) is a reliable psychological measure with adequate internal validity. The result of ERQ analysis consistently show- ed that ERQ has two factors as its structure both using CFA analysis methods and network analysis.

When was the ERQ developed? ›

The 10-item Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ) was developed by Gross and John (2003) to measure the habitual use of 2 emotion regulation strategies: reappraisal and suppression.

How do you measure emotional status? ›

Emotions are physical and instinctive, instantly prompting bodily reactions to threat, reward, and everything in between. The bodily reactions can be measured objectively by pupil dilation (eye tracking), skin conductance (EDA/GSR), brain activity (EEG, fMRI), heart rate (ECG), and facial expressions.

What is the age range for the ERQ? ›

The ERQ-CA is a 10-item child-report questionnaire based on the original adult version by Gross & John (2003) deemed suitable for use with children and adolescents aged 10-18 years.

What are the 4 types of emotional? ›

There are four kinds of basic emotions: happiness, sadness, fear, and anger, which are differentially associated with three core affects: reward (happiness), punishment (sadness), and stress (fear and anger).


1. SSCP Virtual Clinical Lunch: An Affect Science Tx Framework for Distress Disorders - Dr. Doug Mennin
(Mitch Prinstein)
2. Physiological Emotion Regulation in Adolescence
(UCSF Dept. of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences)
(Daisy D)
4. Emotion Regulation: A Critical Review of Cross-cultural Validity
(Mind Uthayaratana)
5. PSF342 - instructions devoir 3
(Mathieu Gagnon)
6. Affective Neuroscience part 3


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